Author Guidelines


This guide is for authors who intend to submit papers to AJASSS. The work of the authors should be original. Submissions that do not meet the outlined standards will be rejected.

Preparing your manuscript

  1. File Format

Manuscript files can be in the following formats: DOC, DOCX, or Microsoft Word. Documents should not be locked or protected.

  1. All Text Format
    • Layout , Spacing, and Length

All texts should be in Times New Roman font style, 12- Font Size, Single Spaced, and Full Justified, including the abstract and the appendices. Page Margins should be set at 1-inch (2.54cm) on all sides. Include page numbers at the Bottom-Right Side of the page. Use continuous page numbers (do not restart the numbering on each section).

Insert ONLY a single space between sentences or words. Try to avoid using section or page breaks, except where Portrait is followed by Landscape and vice versa. Do not format text in multiple columns. Manuscripts should be between 3000 – 5000 words (excluding the abstract, references, and appendices). Author(s) should avoid having many tables and figures. You should present and discuss your findings concisely.

  • Footnotes

Footnotes are discouraged. Try as much as possible to place the information into the main text or the reference list, depending on the content.

  • Language

Manuscripts must be submitted in British English. Make sure that your manuscripts have been proof read for language, grammar, content, vocabulary and any other language or content related issues before submission. To avoid unnecessary and embarrassing grammatical errors you are strongly advised to use the ‘spell-check’ and ‘grammar-check functions of your word processor judiciously.

  • Abbreviations

Define abbreviations upon first appearance in the text. Do not use non-standard abbreviations. Keep abbreviations to a minimum.

  1. Title Format

Paper titles should be cantered in 14-point size, bold font style. Capitalize the first letters of all content words; and use lower case for the first letters of all other words. The title should not exceed 20 words.

  1. Authors Format
    • One Author

If only one author writes the paper, centre the author name, authors’ position, affiliation addresses and email information. For example:

John E. Mwakalinga

Assistant Lecture

Tanzania Institute of Accountancy (TIA)


  • Two or More Authors

If two or more authors contribute to the paper, they should show institution affiliation and the corresponding author.

Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing publication, and post-publication. Ensure that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author. For example,

John E. Mwakalinga1Emmanuel G. Mzinga2

1 Assistant Lecture, Tanzania Institute of Accountancy (TIA), Tanzania

2 Lecturer, Tanzania Chambers of Commerce (TCC), Tanzania

*Corresponding author: email

  1. Headings Format

Limit manuscript sections and sub-sections to 3 heading levels. All headings are set flush left. Capitalize the first letter of content words and use lower case for first letters of all other words. Set 6pt spacing after each heading. That is,

  • Level 1 Headings: 12-point size, bold font style
  • Level 2 Headings: 12-point size, bold font style
  • Level 3 Headings: 12-point size, bold font style, italics

For example:

              3.      Study Methodology

              3.1.   Study Desig

              3.1.1.Data Collection tools

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered as indicated above (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to ‘the text’. Any subsection may be given a brief heading.

  1. Tables and Figures Format

Figures and tables should be embedded in the body of the paper. The title of figures and tables should be in 12-point size, bold font style. Capitalize the first letter of principal words and leave all other letters as lowercase. If the data in the columns of your table include items in parentheses (like p-values), they should be included below the data they refer to, not beside them. For in-text references, the words “Table” and “Figure” are always capitalized.

  • Tables Format

The title of tables should be on the top left of a table. Text in tables should normally be not smaller than 10-point. Use Landscape where necessary to keep table text together. Try to avoid separating a table into two pages, just move text to keep table together. When a table has to move to the next page, try not to leave large gaps between texts.

6.1.1 Indications of statistical significance levels in table notes

*, **, and *** represent significance levels of 0.10 [or 10 percent], 0.05 [or 5 percent], and 0.01 [or 1 percent], respectively.

6.1.2 Table notes

Table notes appear at the bottom of the table. Notes should be as brief as possible; for example, rather than including extensive definitions of variables in the notes, consider placing the definitions in an Appendix, and referring to the Appendix in the notes.

  • Figures Format

The title of figures should be centred below a figure.

7.         Equations

We recommend using MathType for display and inline equations, as it will provide the most reliable outcome. If this is not possible, Equation Editor is acceptable. Avoid using MathType or Equation Editor to insert single variables (e.g., “a² + b² = c²”), Greek or other symbols (e.g., β, Δ, or ′ [prime]), or mathematical operators (e.g., x, ≥, or ±) in running text. Wherever possible, insert single symbols as normal text with the correct Unicode (hex) values.

Do not use MathType or Equation Editor for only a portion of an equation. Rather, ensure that the entire equation is included. Avoid “hybrid” inline or display equations, in which part is text and part is MathType, or part is MathType and part is Equation Editor.

8.         Hypotheses, Definitions, Theorems, Lemmas, Etc.

The headings of hypotheses, definitions, theorems, propositions, and similar items are set in initial cap and small caps (boldface). The text, including mathematical expressions, is in italics. Indent the first line from the left margin (0.5 inch) with a further hanging indent (0.5 inch) for any subsequent lines of text. If there is more than one hypothesis, definition, and similar things number them consecutively using Arabic numerals. After the item, drop a line and continue with the text of the article, flush left. For example:

Hypothesis 1: Board size is positively related with firm performance

9.         References Format

The reference should follow Harvard reference style. The list should be arranged alphabetically according to the surname of the first author or editor, and not be numbered at the end of the paper. Please see the most common examples of references and notes below.

  • In-text citations

The in-text citation is placed at the exact point in your document where you refer to someone else’s work, whether it is a book, journal, online document, website, or any other source. The following guidelines apply to all types of sources, including online documents and websites.

The in-text citation consists of author (or editor) and publication year, in brackets. For example:

Agriculture still employs half a million people in rural Britain (Shucksmith, 2000).

An author can be an organisation or Government Department (known as a ‘corporate author’). For example:

(English Heritage, 2010)

If there are two, both names should be given. For example:

(Lines and Walker, 2007)

If there are more than two authors, cite the first author, followed by ‘et al.’ (in italics) followed by a coma. For example:

(Morgan et al., 2013)

To refer to two or more authors at the same time, list them by date of publication and separate them by a semicolon. For example:

(Taylor, 2013; Piper, 2015)

For several publications by the same author published in the same year, use letters (a, b, c) accordingly to specify the publication cited by that author. For example:

(Watson, 2009a)

If the author’s name occurs naturally in the text, only the year of publication is given in brackets. For example:

In his groundbreaking study, Jones (2014) …

If the date cannot be identified, use the phrase ‘no date’. For example:

(Labour Party, no date)

If there is no author, use a brief title instead (title is in italics). For example:

(Burden of anonymity, 1948)

For web pages, use author and date; if no author, use title, and date; if no author or title, use URL and date. For example:

(, 2014) (Use this ONLY when there is no author or title)

Page number(s) for in-text citations should be included when there is a need to be more specific, for example, referring to specific information or data, or when making a direct quotation. Use p. (for a single page) or pp. (for more than one page). If page numbers are not given (e.g. for some ebooks), use the information that is available, such as 58%. For example:

(Thompson, 2011, p.100)   or (Thompson, 2011, 58%)

Secondary sources: (this means a document, which you have not accessed but which is quoted or mentioned in a source you are using). Link the two sources with the term ‘cited in’ or ‘quoted in’. For example:

…Turner’s analysis of development trends (2000, cited in Walker, 2004, p.53).

NB for above example of secondary sources: You can only include the source you have actually read in your reference list, so, unless you have read Turner yourself, you can only include Walker in your reference list. It is a good practice to read the original source (Turner) so that you can refer to it in addition to Walker.        

Handling Quotations in the text:

Short quotations may be run into the text, using single or double quotation marks (be consistent). For example:

As Owens stated (2008, p.97), ‘the value of…’

Longer quotations should be a separate, indented, paragraph – no need for quotation marks. For example:

Simone de Beauvoir examined her own past and wrote rather gloomily: The past is not a peaceful landscape lying there behind me, a country in which I can stroll wherever I please, and will gradually show me all its secret hills and dales. As I was moving forward, so it was crumbling (Simone de Beauvoir, 1972, p.365).

  1. Reference List

At the end of your paper, you need to provide a complete list of all sources used. The entries in the list(s) are arranged in one alphabetical sequence by author’s surname, title if there is no author, URL if there is no author, or title – whatever has been used in the in-text citation, so that your reader can go easily from an in-text citation to the correct point in your list.

All references, including those for online resources, must contain author, year of publication and title (if known) in that order. Further details are also required, varying according to type of source (see below):

Printed books or reports AND Ebooks, which look the same as a printed book, with publication details and pagination:

  1. Author/Editor: Surname/family name first, followed by initials.
  2. Year of publication: Give the year of publication in round brackets, or (no date).
  • Title: Include title as given on the title page of a book; include any sub-title, separating it from the title by a colon. Capitalise the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns. Use italics.
  1. Edition: Only include if not the first edition. Edition is abbreviated to ‘edn’.
  2. Place of publication and publisher: Use a colon to separate these elements. If more than one place of publication, include only the most local.
  3. Series: Include if relevant, after the publisher.
  • Page number: Include the page number.
Example of printed book, or ebook, which looks like a printed book, or report:



Shone, A. and Parry, B. (2013). Successful event management: a practical handbook. 4th edn. Andover: Cengage Learning, pp. 86.


Example of organisation/Government Department as author:


Department of Health (2012) Manual of nutrition. 12th edn. London:  TSO, pp. 20.

Example of book with no author:

Whitaker’s almanack (2013) London:  J Whitaker and Sons, pp. 30.



Ebooks for which publication details and page numbers are not available AND Online reports

  1. Author/editor
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title (use italics)
  1. Available at: URL (Accessed: date) OR (Downloaded: date)
Marr, A. (2012). A History of the World. Available at: [] (Downloaded:  23 June 2014).




Chapter in a book: 

  1. Author of chapter
  2. Year of publication
  • Title of chapter (in single quotation marks)
  1. ‘In’ and then author, title of complete book (in italics), place of publication, publisher, page numbers of chapter.
Smith, H. (1990) ‘Innovation at large’, in James, S. (ed.) Science and innovation. Manchester:  Novon, pp. 46-50.




Journal articles, print and electronic:

  1. Author
  2. Year of publication
  • Title of article (in single quotation marks)
  1. Title of journal (in italics). Capitalise the first letter of each word in title, except for grammatical words such as ‘and’, ‘the’, ‘of’
  2. Volume number (no brackets), issue number and/or date (all in round brackets)
  3. Page numbers or equivalent (issue and page numbers may be replaced by article numbers)
  • Available at: URL (Accessed: date) (if required) OR DOI (if available)

              (URL is required for an article, which is ONLY available online)

Example of print or online journal article:



Matsaganis, M. (2011). ‘The Welfare State and the Crisis: The Case of Greece. Journal of European Social Policy, 21(5), pp.501-512.


Example of online journal article including doi:


Williams, J. (2000). ‘Tools for Achieving Sustainable Housing Strategies in Rural Gloucestershire’, Planning Practice & Research, 15(3), pp.155-174.



Newspaper articlesprint and electronic:

Potter, R. (2013) ‘Time to take stock’, The Guardian, 20 May, p.15.

(If specifically using an online version, include the URL and date accessed)

 Web page (the main web page, not a pdf on the web page): 

OXFAM (2013). Gender Justice. Available at:

[] (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Pdf on web page:  [Follow guidelines on previous page for referencing ebooks and online reports]

Report from a database:

Mintel Oxygen (2014) ‘Prepared meals review – UK – May 2014’. Available at: [] (Accessed: 12 June 2014).


Saunders, L. (2010) Email to Linda Hinton, 18 August.

[You can also use this pattern for other personal communications e.g. letter, conversation]

Film on YouTube:

Page, D. (2008). How to Draw Cartoon Characters: How to Draw the Head on a Cartoon Character. Available at: [] (Accessed: 26 August 2016).

Photograph from the internet:

Lake, Q. (2010). Emperors’ Heads Outside the Entrance to the Sheldonian Theatre, Broad Street, Oxford. Available at: [] (Accessed: 26 August 2016).



Matheson, C. M. (2004). Products and Passions:  Explorations of Authenticity within Celtic Music Festivities. PhD Thesis. Glasgow Caledonian University. Available at: [] (Accessed: 23 June 2014).


Matheson, C. M. (2004). Products and Passions:  Explorations of Authenticity within Celtic Music Festivities. PhD Thesis. Glasgow Caledonian University, pp.200.


Taylor, F. (2014). ‘The future is bright’. Interview with Francis Taylor. Interviewed by Sally Ross for BBC News, 15 March. [If published on the internet also include the URL and date accessed

Manuscript Organization

Manuscripts should be organized as follows. Instructions for each element appear below the list.

Beginning section:     The following elements are required, in order:

  • Title page: List title, authors, and affiliations as first page of manuscript
  • Title page should be brief and focused on the content of the paper containing authors’ full names & affiliations with indicated phone numbers, email address, postal address;
  • All in bold form, except for authors ‘s names
  • Abstract (should not be more than 250 words)

Should be both Informative and brief not exceeding 250 words in one paragraph (max. length). Should include: Purpose, Study design/methodology, Findings, Originality/value and Implication (research/practical/social) of the study

  • Key words should not exceed five (5) key words which clearly explain the manuscript ‘s theme & purpose
  • Introduction

Middle section: The following elements can be renamed as needed and presented in order:

  • Literature Review
  • Methodology
  • Results
  • Finding and Discussion
  • Conclusions and Recommendations

Ending section: The following elements are required, in order:

  • References
  • Appendices
  • Include appendices only if they provide essential information not possible within the body of the article


Acknowledgement findings and the authors’ manuscript submitted for review and publishing should constitute an acknowledgement of the people who contributed to the work, funding agencies in brief, and so on.

 Author inquiries should be sent to:

Managing Editor

African Journal of Accounting and Social Science Studies (AJASSS)

Tanzania Institute of Accountancy

P.O. Box 9522,

Dar Es Salaam